A Grammar of Lezgian by Martin Haspelmath

By Martin Haspelmath

The sequence builds an in depth choice of prime quality descriptions of languages around the globe. each one quantity bargains a accomplished grammatical description of a unmarried language including absolutely analyzed pattern texts and, if applicable, a thesaurus and different suitable info that is on hand at the language in query. There are not any regulations as to language family members or quarter, and even supposing unique awareness is paid to hitherto undescribed languages, new and beneficial remedies of higher identified languages also are incorporated. No theoretical version is imposed at the authors; the one criterion is a excessive common of clinical caliber.

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Example text

G. pis-wal /'phiswal/ 'badness',gata-z-uua /ga'thazwa/ 'beats'. 2. The contrast aspirated vs. non-aspirated in the following phonemes is not reflected in the spelling: /t/:/t h / Μ: /kh/ /t w /: /thw/ /kw/: /khw/ /ts/:/tsh/ . h/ / t f / /tf /tsw/: /tshw/ . 3. The effect of the recent sound change of vowel syncope is only very inconsistently reflected in the spelling. Most high vowels that were lost by vowel syncope are still written in the orthography. 1. Since the spelling comes close to being phonemic, it is also widely used throughout the phonological and morphological chapters of this grammar.

30) /ladz/ /qadz/ /wardz/ /medz/ /murdz/ /dzaKam/ 'white clay' 'underwood' 'month; moon' 'tongue' 'flame; edge' 'shrub' standard: laz qaz war ζ me ζ murz zaga m /laz/ /qaz/ /warz/ /mez/ /murz/ /zaKam/ In contrast, /φ/ is quite frequent as it occurs in numerous Arabic and Turkic loanwords. The recent phonological change of Pretonic High Vowel Syncope has led to the emergence of quite a few obstruents that are distinctively palatalized (cf. ). They are not included in the consonant inventory here because the change is quite recent and all its implications have yet to be worked out—this is a fruitful area for further research.

As in many languages of traditionally Muslim populations, Arabic loanwords play an eminent role in the Lezgian vocabulary. g. allaah < duTaa? g. ) is also ultimately from Arabic. Since the other main Oriental contact language, Turkic, is also full of Arabic loans, it is often difficult or impossible to establish whether a loanword of ultimate Arabic origin was borrowed directly from Arabic by the few Lezgians who knew Arabic or via Turkic. Since the knowledge of Turkic has always been significantly more widespread among the Lezgians than the knowledge of Arabic, and Arabic was only used as a written and ceremonial language, everyday words such as those in (18) are more likely to have been borrowed via Turkic.

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