By Michael Armstrong
This consultant to trendy recommendations in all fields of administration is a perfect spouse for pro managers, in addition to a vital reference ebook for company and administration scholars. It contains over a hundred systematic and analytical tools used to help in decision-making and to enhance potency and effectiveness.
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Extra info for A Handbook of Management Techniques
INFLUENCES ON INDIVIDUAL BUYING BEHAVIOUR The psychological concepts explaining individual buying behaviour are: ᔢ Motivation – goal-directed behaviour: the emotional and rational motives that affect buying decisions and involve a reaction to a stimulus. ᔢ Self-concept – consumers tend to make purchases that confirm their selfimage so that they can safeguard and boost it. ᔢ Personality – this strongly influences buying behaviour and an aim of buyer behaviour analysis will be to identify what sort of products or services might appeal to different personality types.
8. 9. Prospecting. Preparation. Opening. Requirement identification. Presentation/demonstration. Handling objectives. Negotiation. Close. Follow-up. ADVERTISING (ABOVE-THE-LINE PROMOTION) Media advertising to potential or existing customers is about the products or services on offer to them. The aims are to impart information, to develop favourable attitudes to the product or service, and to generate sales. Media scheduling Media scheduling is the process of deciding what type of media to adopt (TV, radio, cinema advertising, press, internet).
Demographic variables – the market can be segmented according to demographic variables such as age, sex or social class. The following socio-economic group classification system is often used: – A Upper middle class – higher managerial, administrative or professional people. – B Middle class – intermediate managerial, administrative or professional people. – C1 Lower middle class – supervising, clerical and lower managerial administrative or professional people. – C2 Skilled working class – skilled manual workers.