Adrenal Imaging by Shamlal Mangray, Ronald A. DeLellis (auth.), Michael A.

By Shamlal Mangray, Ronald A. DeLellis (auth.), Michael A. Blake, Giles Boland (eds.)

Imaging of the adrenal gland has made super development within the final decade as new applied sciences proceed to adapt. Adrenal Imaging highlights the pertinent scientific and pathological details that underpins the actual interpretation and use of adrenal imaging. Written by means of a prestigious workforce of foreign participants, person chapters in Adrenal Imaging function a correct and updated reference of adrenal imaging findings, algorithms and methods in CT, MR nuclear drugs, intervention, and trauma. precis sections on the finish of every bankruptcy light up key educating issues to reinforce retention.

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Because of variability in a neoplasm, the area sampled may only permit a diagnosis of, ‘‘consistent with adrenal cortical neoplasm,’’ to be rendered. Clearly in functional tumors, differentiation from metastatic tumor or primary tumor from adjacent structures is aided by biochemical studies when available. However, since the majority of cases that are encountered on needle biopsies are non-functional tumors, an immunohistochemical approach is employed because of morphologic overlap. 1 Adrenal Embryology and Pathology 27 Metastatic carcinomas are positive for cytokeratins while cortical tumors may be positive or negative (Fig.

The medulla between the two nodules is diffusely hyperplastic (arrow) (B) Pheochromocytomas usually show negative results on tests for cytokeratins in the majority of cases, but stain positively for vimentin and neurofilament proteins. They exhibit positivity for chromogranin proteins and synaptophysin, but synaptophysin is also present in a large proportion of adrenal cortical carcinomas. S-100 protein is restricted to the sustentacular cells and is particularly evident in those areas with a ‘‘Zellballen’’ pattern (Fig.

53 ................................. 53 Adrenal ‘‘Incidentalomas’’ ........................................... 54 Radiographic Evaluation ............................................ 54 Hypoaldosteronism Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Follow Up .................................................................. 55 ......................................................... 55 .................................................................. 55 Summary Points References Normal Physiology and Regulation of Adrenocortical Function mineralocorticoid aldosterone, secreted in the outer zona glomerulosa plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of blood pressure, vascular volume and potassium homeostasis.

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