By Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development
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Extra resources for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles And Radioactive Waste Management: Nuclear Development
The enrichment plants are characterised by low specific activity of the materials treated. This means that enrichment plants generate only low-level waste and also relatively small amounts. Currently two technologies are in use, gas diffusion and centrifugation, though, all the new plants are based on the latter. A modern centrifuge plant generates around 4x10-5 m3/SWU of LILW-SL . 2 Fuel fabrication plants The waste types generated in stand-alone fuel fabrication plants are describe below; for the fuel cycle schemes including pyrochemical separation, the fuel fabrication is assumed to be part of the reprocessing complex.
While the achievable heat reduction at normal disposal time (50 years) is modest (Factor 2 to 4 depending on the scheme), there exists a significant heat reduction potential for longer cooling times. For example, a 20- to 30-fold heat reduction relative to Scheme 1a could be achieved with a cooling time of 200 years. x The schemes considered may be classified in three groups with regard to pure separated plutonium mass flows which may serve as a rough indicator of proliferation risk: no, relatively low, and 3 to 4 times higher mass flows of pure plutonium.
This means that, for the purpose of the present study, there is no need for a transient modelling. 1). For reactors with partially or fully closed fuel cycles, the fuel composition corresponds to the equilibrium state of the scheme of which the reactor is a component. The HM mass flow is of importance because it determines the capacity of (a) the repository for fuels going directly to disposal and (b) the reprocessing plant for fuels to be recycled. In both cases, a higher mass flow results in an increased fuel cycle cost.