By Detlev Kroger
This new textual content represents the main specific and complete e-book proposing glossy perform and concept suitable to the thermal-flow functionality assessment, layout, and optimization of air-cooled warmth exchangers and cooling towers. Kroger offers smooth analytical and empirical instruments used to judge the thermal-flow functionality and layout of air-cooled warmth exchangers and cooling towers. He additionally covers tips on how to arrange superior standards and review extra serious bids with admire to thermal functionality of recent cooling structures. extra, Kroger explores development probabilities with admire to retrofits of present cooling devices in addition to attainable affects of plant operations and environmental affects
Read Online or Download Air-cooled Heat Exchangers And Cooling Towers: Thermal-flower Performance Evaluation And Design, Vol. 2 PDF
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Extra resources for Air-cooled Heat Exchangers And Cooling Towers: Thermal-flower Performance Evaluation And Design, Vol. 2
The magnitude of this phenomenon increases progressively with increasing system flow resistance. By designing the fan with profiled blades or locating a disc on the downstream side of the hub, this problem can be reduced. In some cases, a reduction in backflow and a corresponding small improvement in performance may also be achieved by retrofitting an existing fan with a disc. 4 Fan System The interaction between the fan and the installation flow resistances, known as the system or installation effect, has been recognized and investigated by a number of authors including Nowakowski, Graham, Costelli, O’Connor, Woods-Ballard, Riera-Ubiergo and Charbonelle, McEwan, and Kröger and Woods-Ballard.
3 Tip Clearance An increase in the gap between the fan blade tip and the casing, also referred to as the fan blade tip clearance, sF, results in a reduction of the fan efficiency according to Monroe, Wallis, and Venter and Kröger. This is due primarily to air leakage from the higher pressure fan outlet stream to the lower pressure inlet region around the tips of the fan blades. 5% of the fan diameter or 19 mm between the fan tip and the casing, whichever is smaller, is recommended according to API Standard 661.
Deutsche Norm, Ventilatoren; Leistungsmessung, Normkennlinien, DIN 24163, Teil 1 & 2, Deutsches Institut für Normung, Berlin, 1985. , J. A. Vermeulen, C. J. Meyer, and D. G. Kröger, “Flow Distortions at the Fan Inlet of Forced-Draught Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers,” Applied Thermal Engineering, 16-8/9:741–752, 1996. , Fans—Design and Operation of Centrifugal, Axial Flow and Crossflow Fans, Pergamon Press, 1973. Engineering Sciences Data Unit, A Guide to Fan Selection and Performance, Item No. 79037, ESDU, London, 1980 Fahlsing, P.