By Miles McPhee
At a time while the polar areas are present process quick and exceptional switch, realizing exchanges of momentum, warmth and salt on the ice-ocean interface is important for realistically predicting the longer term country of sea ice. by way of delivering a dimension platform mostly unaffected via floor waves, drifting sea ice offers a special laboratory for learning facets of geophysical boundary layer flows which are tremendous tough to degree somewhere else. This publication attracts on either wide observations and theoretical ideas to enhance a concise description of the influence of tension, rotation, and buoyancy at the turbulence scales that keep watch over exchanges among the ambience and underlying ocean whilst sea ice is current. a number of attention-grabbing and detailed observational info units are used to demonstrate diverse facets of ice-ocean interplay starting from the impression of salt on melting within the Greenland Sea marginal ice area, to how nonlinearities within the equation of nation for seawater impact blending within the Weddell Sea.
The book’s content material, built from a sequence of lectures, might be applicable extra fabric for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate scholars learning the geophysics of sea ice and planetary boundary layers.
Miles McPhee plays geophysical examine, all in favour of polar areas, either from McPhee study corporation and as associate critical scientist on the collage of Washington utilized Physics Laboratory. He has participated in additional that twenty box courses within the polar oceans of either hemispheres. Dr. McPhee additionally lectures on air-ice-sea interplay on the college heart on Svalbard.
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Extra info for Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction: Turbulent Ocean Boundary Layer Exchange Processes
8. , during the time of the upwelling event. 8a). We then calculated a lower limit on the kinematic stress curl according to ∇ × τ0 ≥ ∆τ0y ∆τ0x − ∆x ∆y where the differentials are approximated by differences over the grid scale ∆x = ∆y = 5 km, with results shown in Fig. 8b. , 500 m). If the numerical value of stress curl from Fig. 8b, evaluated in the vicinity of the ship, is multiplied by 10, the resulting pycnocline displacement is about the same as observed (McPhee et al. 2005), and we thus inferred that the March 19 upwelling event was a result of Ekman pumping.
If a parcel of water from the upper layer (square marker) is displaced downward across the interface, it will be heavier than its ambient surroundings and will continue downward. A parcel displaced across the interface from below (circle) will be lighter than its surroundings and will continue to rise. Consequently thermobaricity is mechanism for enhanced mixing that draws from the potential energy of the destabilizing temperature gradient. Once started, the thermobaric process is self sustaining, and is probably an important component of mixing in marginally stable polar oceans like much of the Weddell in late winter.
The last term, ε , which involves gradients over small distances in all components of the ﬂow, is the dissipation of TKE into internal energy (heat) of the ﬂuid. 4 Scalar Variance Conservation 53 where molecular viscosity plays a major role in natural turbulent ﬂows. 3), with Pb = D = 0 (an approximate balance not uncommon in natural ﬂows) results in a balance between production of TKE by shear and dissipation, and provides a framework for discussing the scales involved in transferring kinetic energy from large scale instabilities (“energy-containing eddies”) where it is extracted from the mean ﬂow, to scales where molecular interaction is important.