By Allan J. Clarke
Many scientists both engaged on the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) challenge or its many functions haven't been knowledgeable in either the equatorial ocean and atmospheric dynamics essential to comprehend it. This booklet seeks to beat this trouble through delivering a step-by-step advent to ENSO, aiding the higher point graduate scholar or learn scientist to benefit fast the ENSO fundamentals and be brand new with the newest ENSO learn. The textual content assumes that the reader has an information of the equations of fluid mechanics on a rotating earth and emphasizes the observations and easy actual causes of them.
Following a background of ENSO and a dialogue of ENSO observations in Chapters 1 and a couple of, Chapters 3-5 give some thought to correct equatorial ocean dynamics, Chapters 6 and nine proper atmospheric dynamics, and Chapters 7 and eight the most paradigms for the way the Pacific Ocean and surroundings couple jointly to supply ENSO. bankruptcy eight additionally discusses the previous secret of why ENSO has a tendency to be locked in section with the seasonal cycle. winning dynamical and statistical methods to ENSO prediction are mentioned in Chapters 10 and eleven whereas bankruptcy 12 concludes the e-book with examples of ways ENSO impacts marine and chook life.
- Quick reference consultant and step-by-step advent to El Niño/Southern Oscillation dynamics
- Keep knowledgeable and recent on El Niño/Southern Oscillation examine and the way El Niño and the Southern Oscillation may be predicted
- Understand how El Niño can have an effect on marine and poultry life
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Additional resources for An introduction to the dynamics of El Niño and the southern oscillation
1975: On ocean spin-down. I. A linear experiment. J. Phys. , 5, 399–409. Graham, N. , and T. P. Barnett, 1987: Sea surface temperature, surface wind divergence and convection over tropical oceans. Science, 238, 657–659. , 1976: Variations in low-latitude circulation and extreme climatic events in the tropical Americas. J. Atmos. , 33, 202–215. Horel, J. , and J. M. Wallace, 1981: Planetary-scale atmospheric phenomena associated with the Southern Oscillation. Mon. , 109, 813–829. Kessler, W. , 1990: Observations of long Rossby waves in the northern tropical Pacific.
6 shows that the southeast and northeast trade winds in the eastern tropical Pacific converge on a latitude band which is known as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The ITCZ moves north and south seasonally and also interannually. When a warm ENSO episode occurs, the ITCZ moves southward (Ramage 1975; Hastenrath 1976; Rasmusson and Carpenter 1982: Deser and Wallace 1990; Clarke 1992), making the surface winds anomalously convergent near the equator and less convergent (anomalously divergent) at about 10 N (Fig.
In the next three chapters we will focus on the ocean dynamics. I assume that readers of this chapter have a basic knowledge of the equations of fluid mechanics on a rotating earth. Only linear theory will be considered since the wind-driven ocean flows relevant to ENSO are approximately linear. 2, we will analyze a linear ocean model that is of constant depth, has horizontal stratification and is forced by the wind. 3. Basic to the ocean response to the wind are equatorial ocean waves as they can carry energy over enormous distances and are directly responsible for El Niño.